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Extra reflections of labial mucosa appear as folds of tissue in the midline attaching the superior and inferior lips to mrf-008 hypertension order midamor 45mg with mastercard the gingiva heart attack brain damage purchase midamor 45 mg without prescription. Occasionally heart attack youtube discount 45mg midamor otc, the superior labial frenulum is so broadly attached that it interferes with normal eruption of the central incisors, thereby producing a diastema. Correction of this condition usually requires surgical removal of the frenulum between the central incisors to permit the teeth to return to the normal position. The gingiva (gum) is covered by the gingival mucosa, which folds back on itself to form a free edge, known as the gingival margin, which surrounds the inferior margin of the clinical crowns of the teeth. The vestibular gingiva in this region becomes continuous with the gingiva of the oral cavity proper. The interdental papilla lies between the teeth in the interdental spaces, and the retromolar papilla is that specialized area of the gingiva distal to the last molars in both dental arches. The coronal-most aspect of the interdental papilla of the molar region usually possesses a concavity known as the col. The alveolar mucosa overlies the alveolar processes of both the maxillary and mandibular arches. Its red hue is caused by the visibility of its vascularity through the nonkeratinized epithelium of its mucosa. Where the alveolar mucosa blends into the remaining vestibular mucosa is not easily distinguished. However, a rather sharp, scalloped line, the mucogingival junction, separates the gingival mucosa from the alveolar mucosa. The oral cavity proper is that part of the oral cavity lying internal to the dental arches of each jaw and their surrounding gingiva. The oral cavity proper lies internal to the dental arches and their contained dentition and gingiva. It is bounded superiorly by the palate and inferiorly by the muscular tongue and reflections of the mucous membrane extending from the mandibular gingiva in the sublingual sulcus (groove) to the base of the tongue. Anterolaterally, it is bounded by the lingual surfaces of the teeth, lingual gingiva, and lingual alveolar mucosa. The posterior boundary of the oral cavity proper is formed by the vertical portion of the soft palate superiorly and by the anterior pillar of the fauces (the palatoglossal arch). This arch, which includes the palatoglossus muscle and overlying oral mucosa, extends from the soft palate to the sides of the base of the tongue. Chapter 4 the Oral Cavity, Palate, and Pharynx 35 Clinical Considerations Vestibule A fold of mucosa in the posterior-most boundary of the vestibule connecting the maxillary and mandibular alveolar regions covers the pterygomandibular raphe. The raphe is a tendinous inscription between the buccinator and superior constrictor muscles that is attached to the pterygoid hamulus and the area of the retromolar triangle of the mandible. The superior labial frenulum frequently possesses a tag of tissue located on its anterior surface approximately midway between its attachments at the lip and gingiva. The region of the buccal mucosa adjacent to the mandibular retromolar papilla contains an aggregation of accessory buccal glands that results in a prominence in the mucosa. This, along with the retromolar papilla, is often referred to incorrectly as the retromolar pad. Occasionally, a white line, the linea alba, may be observed on the buccal mucosa representing that area of 3 2 1 the mucosa in close proximity to the occlusal surfaces when the jaws are in the closed position. The space of the vestibule is somewhat reduced when the mouth is opened by the forward movement of the coronoid process of the mandible as its condyle moves forward and downward. This may interfere with dental radiographic procedures in the maxillary molar area and in preparing study models and making maxillary dentures. The masseter muscle also impinges on the vestibular space as the mouth is closed and teeth are clenched. The anterior edge of this muscle may be palpated in the clenched position by inserting a finger in the buccal vestibule. The presence of this muscle must be taken into account when fitting a mandibular prosthesis. Communication of the oral cavity proper with the vestibule has been discussed previously; now its communication with the pharynx will be described.
Linear grooves-retinal fissures (optic fissures)develop on the ventral surface of the optic cups and along the optic stalks hypertension quiz questions midamor 45 mg visa. The fissures contain vascular mesenchyme from which the hyaloid blood vessels develop pulse pressure measurement cheap midamor 45mg without a prescription. The hyaloid artery blood pressure app purchase midamor 45mg with visa, a branch of the ophthalmic artery, supplies the inner layer of the optic cup, the lens vesicle, and the mesenchyme in the cavity of the optic cup. As the edges of the retinal fissure fuse, the hyaloid vessels are enclosed within the primordial optic nerve (see. Development of the Retina the retina develops from the walls of the optic cup, an outgrowth of the forebrain. The outer, thinner layer of the optic cup becomes the retinal pigment epithelium (pigmented layer of retina), and the inner, thicker layer differentiates into the neural retina (neural layer of retina). Before birth, this space gradually disappears as the two layers of the retina fuse (see. Under the influence of the developing lens, the inner layer of the optic cup proliferates to form a thick neuroepithelium (see. Subsequently, the cells of this layer differentiate into the neural retina, the light-sensitive region of the optic part of the retina. Fibroblast growth factor signaling regulates retinal ganglion cell differentiation. Because the optic vesicle invaginates as it forms the optic cup, the neural retina is "inverted, " that is, light-sensitive parts of the photoreceptor cells are adjacent to the retinal pigment epithelium. As a result, light must pass through the thickest part of the retina before reaching the receptors; however, because the retina overall is thin and transparent, it does not form a barrier to light. As a result, the cavity of the optic stalk is gradually obliterated as the axons of the many ganglion cells form the optic nerve (see. After the eyes have been exposed to light for approximately 10 weeks, myelination is complete, but the process normally stops short of the optic disc, where the optic nerve enters the eyeball. Note that the edges of the retinal fissure are growing together, thereby completing the optic cup and enclosing the central artery and vein of the retina in the optic stalk and cup. Coloboma of the Retina this defect is characterized by a localized gap in the retina, usually inferior to the optic disc. A typical coloboma of the retina results from defective closure of the retinal fissure. Coloboma of the Iris Coloboma is a defect in the inferior sector of the iris or a notch in the pupillary margin, giving the pupil a keyhole appearance (see. Congenital Detachment of the Retina Congenital detachment of the retina occurs when the inner and outer layers of the optic cup fail to fuse during the fetal period to form the retina and obliterate the intraretinal space. Cyclopia page 422 page 423 In this very rare anomaly, the eyes are partially or completely fused, forming a single median eye enclosed in a single orbit. Cyclopia (single eye) and synophthalmia (fusion of eyes) represent a spectrum of ocular defects in which the eyes are partially or completely fused. These severe eye anomalies are associated with other craniocerebral defects that are incompatible with life. Microphthalmia page 423 page 424 Congenital microphthalmia is a heterogeneous group of eye anomalies. If the interference with development occurs before the retinal fissure closes in the sixth week, the eye is larger, but the microphthalmos is associated with gross ocular defects. The hereditary pattern may be autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or X linked. Anophthalmia page 424 page 425 Anophthalmia denotes congenital absence of the eye, which is rare. In primary anophthalmos, eye development is arrested early in the fourth week and results from failure of the optic vesicle to form. In secondary anophthalmos, development of the forebrain is suppressed and absence of the eye or eyes is one of several associated anomalies. A, C, and E, Views of the inferior surface of the optic cup and stalk showing progressive stages in the closure of the retinal fissure. C1, Schematic sketch of a longitudinal section of a part of the optic cup and stalk showing axons of ganglion cells of the retina growing through the optic stalk to the brain. Observe that it is the posterior wall of the lens vesicle that forms the lens fibers.
Second and perhaps more importantly blood pressure medication used for hot flashes 45 mg midamor with mastercard, growth charts can be used to hypertension quality measures 45mg midamor otc follow a child over time to blood pressure medication and weight gain purchase midamor 45 mg line evaluate whether there is an unexpected change in growth pattern. Note that this girl remained at about the 75th percentile for height and weight over this entire period of observation. B, Growth of a boy who developed a medical problem that affected growth, plotted on the male chart. Note the change in pattern (crossover of lines on the chart) between ages 10 and 11. This reflects the impact of serious illness beginning at that time, with partial recovery after age 13 but a continuing effect on growth. National Center for Health Statistics, 1979; charts developed by the National Center for Health Statistics in collaboration with the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, published May 30, 2000, revised 11/21/00. Inevitably, there is a gray area at the extremes of normal variations, at which it is difficult to determine if growth is normal. Variability in growth arises in several ways: from normal variation, from influences outside the normal experience. Variation in timing arises because the same event happens for different individuals at different times-or, viewed differently, the biologic clocks of different individuals are set differently. Variations in growth and development because of timing are particularly evident in human adolescence. Some children grow rapidly and mature early, completing their growth quickly and thereby appearing on the high side of developmental charts until their growth ceases and their contemporaries begin to catch up. Others grow and develop slowly and so appear to be behind, even though, given time, they will catch up with and even surpass children who once were larger. All children undergo a spurt of growth at adolescence, which can be seen more clearly by plotting change in height or weight (Figure 2-5), but the growth spurt occurs at different times in different individuals. A curve like the black line is called a "distance curve, " whereas the maroon line is a "velocity curve. These data are for the growth of one individual, the son of a French aristocrat in the late eighteenth century, whose growth followed the typical pattern. Note the acceleration of growth at adolescence, which occurred for this individual at about age 14. When the growth velocity curves for early-, average-, and late-maturing girls are compared in Figure 2-6, the marked differences in size between these girls during growth are apparent. At age 11, the early-maturing girl is already past the peak of her adolescent growth spurt, whereas the late-maturing girl has not even begun to grow rapidly. This sort of timing variation occurs in many aspects of both growth and development and can be an important contributor to variability. Although age is usually measured chronologically as the amount of time since birth or conception, it is also possible to measure age biologically, in terms of progress toward various developmental markers or stages. For instance, if data for gain in height for girls are replotted, using menarche as a reference time point (Figure 2-7), it is apparent that girls who mature early, average, or late really follow a very similar growth pattern. This graph substitutes stage of sexual development for chronologic time to produce a biologic time scale and shows that the pattern is expressed at different times chronologically but not at different times physiologically. It is interesting to note that the earlier the adolescent growth spurt occurs, the more intense it appears to be. Obviously, at age 11 or 12, an early maturing girl would be considerably larger than one who matured late. In each case, the onset of menstruation (menarche) (M1, M2, and M3) came after the peak of growth velocity. It is apparent that the growth pattern in each case is quite similar, with almost all of the variations resulting from timing. Methods for Studying Physical Growth Before beginning the examination of growth data, it is important to have a reasonable idea of how the data were obtained. The first is based on techniques for measuring living animals (including humans), with the implication that the measurement itself does no harm and that the animal will be available for additional measurements at another time. This implies that the subject of the experiment will be available for study in some detail, and the detailed study may be destructive.
Clinically blood pressure medication photosensitivity buy discount midamor 45 mg line, it may appear that the posterior teeth are being intruded arrhythmia life expectancy 45 mg midamor with visa, but incisor eruption usually is a greater contributor to white coat hypertension xanax discount midamor 45mg line the development of posterior open bite. In only a few months, the patient may end up in a situation in which discarding the splint has become impossible. Then the only treatment possibilities are elongation of the posterior teeth, either with crowns or orthodontic extrusion, or intrusion of the anterior teeth. Placing orthodontic attachments on the posterior teeth and using light vertical elastics to the posterior segments can be used to bring the posterior teeth back into occlusion (Figure 18-28), if the patient can tolerate this treatment. Some re-intrusion of the elongated anterior teeth is likely to occur, but a significant increase in face height is often maintained. Although permanently increasing the vertical dimension to control disk displacement can be accomplished in this way, this treatment plan should be used with extreme caution. Periodontal Considerations Periodontal problems are rarely a major concern during orthodontic treatment of children and adolescents because periodontal disease usually does not arise at an early age and tissue resistance is higher in younger patients. This was created by a combination of intrusion of the posterior teeth and further eruption of the anterior teeth. Before (A) and after (B) orthodontic treatment to extrude the posterior teeth back into occlusion. The prevalence of periodontal disease as a function of age in a large group of potential orthodontic patients with severe malocclusion is shown in Figure 18-29. Note that up to the late thirties, there is nearly a straight-line relationship between age and periodontal pocketing (defined here as the presence of pockets of 5 mm or more). The odds are that any patient over the age of 35 has some periodontal problems that could affect orthodontic treatment, and mucogingival considerations are important in treatment of the younger adult group. A, Initial smile and (B) initial close-up frontal view, showing the spacing in both arches created by the drifting of teeth that accompanied her severe periodontal problems. She had moderately severe generalized periodontal disease with localized severe bone loss. After the periodontal disease was brought under control, she sought treatment to retract her protruding incisors and close the anterior spaces in both arches. The plan was to use skeletal anchorage (alveolar bone screws) in both arches to retract the incisors while maintaining normal overbite. Closure of the old maxillary left second molar extraction space was judged to be more than could be managed even with skeletal anchorage without compromising the symmetry of the anterior segment. F and G, A-NiTi coil springs and sliding mechanics were used for space closure in both arches, with screws placed between the first and second premolars in both arches. I to K, Age 58, after completion of orthodontic treatment that required 35 months. Note the improvement in dental alignment and occlusion, and the maintenance of her periodontal health. N, Cephalometric superimposition showing the major retraction of the incisors with no forward movement of the posterior teeth. Instead, it is characterized by episodes of acute attack on some but usually not all areas of the mouth, followed by quiescent periods. At present, persistent bleeding on gentle probing is the best indicator of active and presumably progressive disease, which is why it is important for the orthodontist to probe carefully during an orthodontic clinical examination. New diagnostic procedures used by periodontists to evaluate subgingival plaque and crevicular fluids for the presence of indicator bacteria, enzymes, or other chemical mediators now are clinically useful and likely to be used on potential orthodontic patients referred for further evaluation. There appear to be at least three risk groups in the population for progression of periodontal bone loss: those with rapid progression (about 10%), those with moderate progression (the great majority, about 80%), and those with no progression (about 10%). Treatment of Patients with Minimal Periodontal Involvement Any patient undergoing orthodontic treatment must take extra care to clean the teeth, but this is even more important in adult orthodontics. Bacterial plaque is the main etiologic factor in periodontal breakdown, and its effect is largely determined by the host response. Orthodontic appliances simultaneously make maintenance of oral hygiene more difficult and more important. In children and adolescents, even if gingivitis develops in response to the presence of orthodontic appliances, it almost never extends into periodontitis. This cannot be taken for granted in adults, no matter how good their initial periodontal condition.
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